Anti-Muslim Networks on Facebook

My work on understanding social networks of anti-Muslim groups on Facebook will be published in the proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Social Informatics (SocInfo 2018). The work will be presented on September 26 in St. Petersburg, Russia.

This research was also recently covered in Buzzfeed News.

Below is a network diagram showing some of the extremist groups and ideologies in my data set, and how they overlap in membership.

Network of Anti-Muslim & other extremist groups on Facebook, with 10+ members in common (click to enlarge)

Two of the key anti-Muslim groups in this network – each scoring very high on betweenness centrality measures – are Infidel Brotherhood International and Stop the Islamization of America. Each of their ego graphs are shown below:

Anti-Muslim groups attract the same audiences as other extremist ideologies, including secessionist neo-Confederates, militant anti-government conspiracy theorists, and racist white nationalists. In addition, groups like IBI and SOIA can serve as a convenient lingua franca: their brand of hate is a common denominator that ties extremists of disparate ideologies together.

Updated Facebook co-membership graphs

I’ve updated the Facebook co-membership graphs (see original post) for my upcoming talk at the International Conference on Computational Social Science (IC2S2) to be held at Northwestern University in July. (extended abstract – PDF)

This talk will include data through the end of March, 2018.

Once again, larger nodes = more people. Closer placement between nodes on the graph mean more folks in common.

What do we learn? There are some ideologies that are woven much more naturally into the fabric of a “united” far-right, as opposed to other ideologies, which will be harder to integrate.

Upcoming work will look at groups with nativist ideologies, including anti-Muslim, anti-Immigrant, and how those correspond to Anti-Government/Patriot/Militia and White Nationalist beliefs.


Analysis of the latest 1000 Facebook posts by the Times-News (Aug-Dec)

I was playing around with some code today from Mastering Social Media Mining with Python (by Marco Bonzanini, and published by the same company that published my last two books), and I came up with this snazzy set of scripts (, that mines the last X posts from any public Facebook page, creates a clickable FB url for each, sorts them in order of most interactions (shares + likes), and creates a spreadsheet with the results.

Here are the results when run for the last 1000 posts by the Times-News of Burlington, our local newspaper: timesNews.csv.


Not that surprising or shocking, but here goes. The last 1000 only goes back to August or so (modify the params at the top of the code to make it scrape more), but the top five posts for August-December based on interactions seem to be:

  1. The death of Tim-Bob from Graham Cinema
  2. The abduction of a middle schooler from a bus stop
  3. Kmart closing
  4. 25-minute Christmas Lights show on Maple Ridge Dr.
  5. Housing emergency at Burlington Animal Services

No election-related or weather-related items cracked the top 20.

Get rid of the Quizzstar 2016 “words of the year” app

Many friends are posting results of the Quizzstar “words of the year” app on Facebook. It generates a 2010-style word cloud of the words you used on Facebook posts most frequently. To make the image, the user gives Quizzstar permission to view all their old posts, download them to Quizzstar, at which point Quizzstar generates the image. Below is a screenshot of the Quizzstar web site, showing that this app is currently their #1 most popular. (They also have other apps that harvest your friends list and so on.)

Quizzstar “most used words” app, 2016

What users might not be aware of is that by installing this app in your Facebook account, you are agreeing to have your profile and posts mined in order to change and influence the advertisements that you are subsequently shown.

It’s a little hard to follow, but the relevant parts of Quizzstar’s Privacy Policy are sections 8-18 where they describe all the different ways they mash up your data with other data in order to do the advertisement dance. Third party mashups include: Google services (Youtube, Maps, Google Ad Words, Clicky, Admob, AdSense), Facebook (Social and Remarketing), StatCounter, Criteo, and Taboola.

An example of how they use your FB wall posts are mixed with this third party data is as follows (section 18),

We use the remarketing and ad technology provided by Taboola… in order to improve the relevance of the advertising presented to consumers. [This]… includes technical browser and system information, details of how you used our service, such as your navigation paths the referring site, application, or service as well as might be combined with such data collected on other sources. Taboola might also use “Web Beacons” (small invisible images) to collect information. Through the use of “Web Beacons” simple actions such as the visitor traffic to the website can be pseudonymously recorded and collected.

Doesn’t that sound fun?

If you regret installing this app, here’s how to get rid of it.

On a regular device, such as a laptop or desktop machine (i.e. full screen browser):

  1. Go into privacy, and click “See more settings”

2. On the left, click “Apps”

3. Click “Show All” and hover your mouse over the errant app. Use the “X” to remove it (the Cartwheel app is shown, because I had forgotten to remove this one after an experiment last month! whoops)

Removing it on a mobile device

If you’re using a mobile device, you can remove apps by finding your profile page and click through as shown. Sorry Android users, this is an iPhone – I hope FB mobile is similar on your device!

Removing Data from Quizzstar

Go to their user history page on their site, scroll to the bottom.

See if it shows any history for you. (Mine didn’t because I never had the app, but maybe this works for you?)


Explainer: Vocabulary used in /r/the_donald

The New York Times recently ran a piece called “Reddit and the God Emperor of the Internet” about a pro-Trump online community called The_Donald on Reddit. The purpose of the article was to explain to non-Redditors what The_Donald is, who populates this community, and some of the specialized vocabulary used by its 300,000+ members.

It’s a pretty good article, but it’s missing some important things. I’m going to expand their analysis, but first let me give you some quick backstory about how I got involved in this stuff. Back in March, during the presidential primaries, I realized could not name any real live Trump supporters from my various friend circles. I could not think of a single friend in real life or in social media that had mentioned liking Trump or supporting him. And yet he kept winning, so I was really confused. Who is voting for this guy? Am I being pranked? Trump voters must exist, but why haven’t I met any? If they’re not talking to me, who are they talking to?

So, I decided that my social media must be an echo chamber, and decided to find some Trump supporters elsewhere. At this point, I was already a Reddit user, but I had mainly posted in computer science-related subreddits, and occasionally wandered into the SandersForPresident subreddit. But everyone on Reddit seemed to know about The_Donald, the subreddit that was ground zero for mocking Bernie supporters, starting flamewars with the Hillary “shills”, and trying to get their “spicy” Trump meme images promoted to Reddit’s front page. Since I study online software development communities in my academic research, it seemed natural for me to collect data about The_Donald, just like I would do in my normal research.

The first thing I noticed about The_Donald is the highly specialized vocabulary used by the in-group. The learning curve is not terribly steep, but there is definitely a set of jargon that is used to signify belonging. The NYT article touches on some of the terms, but here are my additions:

  1. Centipede. A Trump supporter. Abbreviation: ‘pede. Origin: this video (“Pede” should not be confused with pedo, see #pizzagate) Example headline: Fox and Friends: “Trump leading ALL OVER” Fellow ‘Pedes ITS HAPPENING!!!
  2. Based. Adjective used to give very high praise, especially when applied to someone who is acting in support of Trump. Example: PENNSYLVANIA FLIPPING RED – BASED AMISH TO THE RESCUE
  3. CTR. Short for “Correct the Record”. CTR is a Hillary superpac the purpose of which is to create “shill” accounts on social media. These shill accounts downvote Trump postings and upvote Hillary postings. CTR is very hated by Based Centipedes. Example: You know we are winning because CTR shills are being TRIGGERED left and right. Don’t let them divide us! THEY HAVE NO POWER HERE!
  4. Plant lady, based plant lady. A nickname for Jill Stein, who The_Donald users inexplicably, simultaneously both respected and reviled. “Based Grandma” is another synonym. Example: “BASED PLANT LADY Jill Stein ALL BUT ENDORSES TRUMP! Trump is for PEACE! 
  5. Crooked. Short for Crooked Hillary, Trump’s nickname for her.
  6. Coats. When you publicly affirm your support for Trump, you are given a coat. Example: Give this man a coat! This comes from an early Trump rally where he asked security to confiscate a protestor’s coat.
  7. pol is short for /pol/ which is a board on 4chan devoted to being politically incorrect. Lots of overlap between /pol/ and The_Donald. Please don’t go to /pol/. I warned you.
  8. Cucks. Short for cuckold. Refers to a person who is not a Trump supporter, especially one who “should” be, for example a man who doesn’t support Trump, or a media figure who is giving Trump a hard time. Alternate forms: cuckservative (a conservative who doesn’t follow Trump). Origin: comes from #GamerGate
  9. SJW. Short for social justice warrior. Origin: comes from #GamerGate
  10. Nimble navigator. This is a synonym for based centipede. Origin: this Youtube video describing centipedes as nimble navigators, overlaid with Trump video captures
  11. Autists. This refers to “person who has so many great computer skills, i.e. for hunting info, they must be autistic.” Alternates: weaponized autists. Example: Weaponized autists on /pol/ compile 400+ page document exposing Crooked Shillary! SPREAD THIS LINK LIKE WILDFIRE, AND THEN KEEP SPREADING IT!
  12. The best. “We have the best ____ don’t we folks?” Fill in with any noun. Comes from “I have the best words” and other Trumpist use of “the best”. Example: We have the best autists, don’t we folks?
  13. Spez. /u/spez is the username of the CEO of Reddit. Roundly hated and criticized by The_Donald community. To use this in a sentence, they may claim he is a  – vocabulary test incoming – SJW cuck whose company is set up to shill for Hillary using money from CTR. This revulsion and hatred for Spez got turned up to 11 over the Thanksgiving weekend when Spez revealed that he had abused his power as CEO of Reddit to edit the comments of some The_Donald members.
  14. High energy – very high praise. Opposite of “low energy” (as in Low Energy Jeb, Trump’s nickname for Jeb Bush during the primaries).
  15. White wolf and Silver Fox. These are nicknames for Mike Pence. Example: Let’s take a moment to give our thanks to Mike Pence, the White Wolf. It wasn’t too hard to annihilate the Creepy Kaine in the debates, but it was crucial nonetheless
  16. MAGA. Perhaps obvious, but stands for Make America Great Again. This is a greeting and a goodbye, kind of like Aloha.
  17. Reeeeee and Pepe. Pepe is a cartoon frog that is used by Trump supporters as a leading figure in their memes. It is also used in some white nationalist communities, but did not originate as a racist figure. The sound Pepe makes in anger is “Reeeee”.
  18. Tendies. This is a tough one. Tendies is short for chicken tenders. The origin of tendies is very complex, but supporters use it to mean an immature person, such as a whiny Bernie supporter who wants free stuff and lives in his mothers basement, eating tendies and getting “good boy points” for being nice. An example would be this headline: Trump doesn’t eat mommies tendies. He eats real fried chicken from a bucket of American KFC he bought himself!
  19. MSM. The mainstream media.
  20. Red pilled. Happens to people when they find out too much about the lies told to them by “normies” (normal people) and the MSM. Origin: The Matrix – Neo takes the Red Pill and finds out that he has been serving as a human battery.

Another thing that was very interesting to me was a type of initiation ritual that was developed for former Bernie supporters to pledge their allegiance to Trump. The ritual goes like this: first, the “afterberner” publicly declares his support for Trump by posting on The_Donald. Next, as part of that post, the afterberner disavows Bernie Sanders. Finally, the afterberner is welcomed onto “The Trump Train” and given a coat (see #6 in the vocabulary list above).

Aside from initiating new members, The_Donald posters primarily spend their time generating memes, criticizing opponents, and sharing and commenting on links. Near the end of the general election process, some of the more weaponized autists (see #11 above) donated substantial time to working on Wikileaks, specifically in finding anti-Hillary evidence within the leaked Podesta emails. I was also working on the Wikileaks emails, so I noticed them a lot. Their presence on the DNCLeaks and WikiLeaks subreddits was definitely noticed and not always appreciated.

In a prior posting I compared some of the language and beliefs of participants on The_Donald to other online communities, such as free and open source software communities, some white supremacist online communities, and the alt-right media.

Similarities between some male-dominated online communities

The Guardian had a great article today that makes explicit many of the connections between the so-called “alt-right” and other predominantly male online movements/communities such as #Gamergate. I’d extend their analysis by adding two more communities: free, libre, and open source software (FLOSS) developers, and pro-Trump communities like the_donald on Reddit. Like Gamergate and alt-right, these are male online communities that have the same predictable speaking style and culture as referenced in the Guardian article:

Prominent supporters on Twitter, in subreddits and on forums like 8Chan, developed a range of pernicious rhetorical devices and defences to distance themselves from threats to women and minorities in the industry: the targets were lying or exaggerating, they were too precious; a language of dismissal and belittlement was formed against them. Safe spaces, snowflakes, unicorns, cry bullies…. These techniques, forged in Gamergate, have become the standard toolset of far-right voices online.

I’ve built data sets of insults, gender stereotypes, double entendres (e.g. “that’s what she said” jokes) and so on using the 90+% male FLOSS developer community, and earlier this year I worked with a student and another colleague to build a machine learning classifier that could automatically detect the abusive speech style of Linus Torvalds as compared to other Linux maintainers.

After doing this work, I think there are a few other characteristics in common between all these communities:

  • Their members engage in hero worship of strong, identifiable male leaders. Moreover, these hero-leaders are always excused when they behave badly.
    • Trump in the_donald,
    • Torvalds in FLOSS,
    • Robert E. Lee/Stonewall Jackson and a large cast of other generals and ancestors to worship in neo-confederate communities,
    • even Cernovich in the allegedly “leaderless” Gamergate
  • Their members believe that meritocracy is the ideal arbiter, and that they have been victimized in the past by non-meritocratic institutions or systems. Examples of this are replete in discussions of:
    • affirmative action,
    • the obsession with illegal immigration,
    • jobs lost to foreign nations,
    • software projects that are in jeopardy because standards weren’t high enough,
    • strivers” as a euphemism for white supremacy, etc.
  • Their members fetishize their hero as a David up against some Goliath

So yes, Guardian, it is all very predictable.