Below is a network diagram showing some of the extremist groups and ideologies in my data set, and how they overlap in membership.
Two of the key anti-Muslim groups in this network – each scoring very high on betweenness centrality measures – are Infidel Brotherhood International and Stop the Islamization of America. Each of their ego graphs are shown below:
Anti-Muslim groups attract the same audiences as other extremist ideologies, including secessionist neo-Confederates, militant anti-government conspiracy theorists, and racist white nationalists. In addition, groups like IBI and SOIA can serve as a convenient lingua franca: their brand of hate is a common denominator that ties extremists of disparate ideologies together.
I’ve updated the Facebook co-membership graphs (see original post) for my upcoming talk at the International Conference on Computational Social Science (IC2S2) to be held at Northwestern University in July. (extended abstract – PDF)
This talk will include data through the end of March, 2018.
Once again, larger nodes = more people. Closer placement between nodes on the graph mean more folks in common.
What do we learn? There are some ideologies that are woven much more naturally into the fabric of a “united” far-right, as opposed to other ideologies, which will be harder to integrate.
Upcoming work will look at groups with nativist ideologies, including anti-Muslim, anti-Immigrant, and how those correspond to Anti-Government/Patriot/Militia and White Nationalist beliefs.
I was playing around with some code today from Mastering Social Media Mining with Python (by Marco Bonzanini, and published by the same company that published my last twobooks), and I came up with this snazzy set of scripts (postGetter.py, fileParser.py) that mines the last X posts from any public Facebook page, creates a clickable FB url for each, sorts them in order of most interactions (shares + likes), and creates a spreadsheet with the results.
Here are the results when run for the last 1000 posts by the Times-News of Burlington, our local newspaper: timesNews.csv.
Not that surprising or shocking, but here goes. The last 1000 only goes back to August or so (modify the params at the top of the code to make it scrape more), but the top five posts for August-December based on interactions seem to be:
Many friends are posting results of the Quizzstar “words of the year” app on Facebook. It generates a 2010-style word cloud of the words you used on Facebook posts most frequently. To make the image, the user gives Quizzstar permission to view all their old posts, download them to Quizzstar, at which point Quizzstar generates the image. Below is a screenshot of the Quizzstar web site, showing that this app is currently their #1 most popular. (They also have other apps that harvest your friends list and so on.)
What users might not be aware of is that by installing this app in your Facebook account, you are agreeing to have your profile and posts mined in order to change and influence the advertisements that you are subsequently shown.
An example of how they use your FB wall posts are mixed with this third party data is as follows (section 18),
We use the remarketing and ad technology provided by Taboola… in order to improve the relevance of the advertising presented to consumers. [This]… includes technical browser and system information, details of how you used our service, such as your navigation paths the referring site, application, or service as well as might be combined with such data collected on other sources. Taboola might also use “Web Beacons” (small invisible images) to collect information. Through the use of “Web Beacons” simple actions such as the visitor traffic to the website can be pseudonymously recorded and collected.
Doesn’t that sound fun?
If you regret installing this app, here’s how to get rid of it.
On a regular device, such as a laptop or desktop machine (i.e. full screen browser):
Go into privacy, and click “See more settings”
2. On the left, click “Apps”
3. Click “Show All” and hover your mouse over the errant app. Use the “X” to remove it (the Cartwheel app is shown, because I had forgotten to remove this one after an experiment last month! whoops)
Removing it on a mobile device
If you’re using a mobile device, you can remove apps by finding your profile page and click through as shown. Sorry Android users, this is an iPhone – I hope FB mobile is similar on your device!
The New York Times recently ran a piece called “Reddit and the God Emperor of the Internet” about a pro-Trump online community called The_Donald on Reddit. The purpose of the article was to explain to non-Redditors what The_Donald is, who populates this community, and some of the specialized vocabulary used by its 300,000+ members.
It’s a pretty good article, but it’s missing some important things. I’m going to expand their analysis, but first let me give you some quick backstory about how I got involved in this stuff. Back in March, during the presidential primaries, I realized could not name any real live Trump supporters from my various friend circles. I could not think of a single friend in real life or in social media that had mentioned liking Trump or supporting him. And yet he kept winning, so I was really confused. Who is voting for this guy? Am I being pranked? Trump voters must exist, but why haven’t I met any? If they’re not talking to me, who are they talking to?
So, I decided that my social media must be an echo chamber, and decided to find some Trump supporters elsewhere. At this point, I was already a Reddit user, but I had mainly posted in computer science-related subreddits, and occasionally wandered into the SandersForPresident subreddit. But everyone on Reddit seemed to know about The_Donald, the subreddit that was ground zero for mocking Bernie supporters, starting flamewars with the Hillary “shills”, and trying to get their “spicy” Trump meme images promoted to Reddit’s front page. Since I study online software development communities in my academic research, it seemed natural for me to collect data about The_Donald, just like I would do in my normal research.
The first thing I noticed about The_Donald is the highly specialized vocabulary used by the in-group. The learning curve is not terribly steep, but there is definitely a set of jargon that is used to signify belonging. The NYT article touches on some of the terms, but here are my additions:
pol is short for /pol/ which is a board on 4chan devoted to being politically incorrect. Lots of overlap between /pol/ and The_Donald. Please don’t go to /pol/. I warned you.
Cucks. Short for cuckold. Refers to a person who is not a Trump supporter, especially one who “should” be, for example a man who doesn’t support Trump, or a media figure who is giving Trump a hard time. Alternate forms: cuckservative (a conservative who doesn’t follow Trump). Origin: comes from #GamerGate
Spez. /u/spez is the username of the CEO of Reddit. Roundly hated and criticized by The_Donald community. To use this in a sentence, they may claim he is a – vocabulary test incoming – SJW cuck whose company is set up to shill for Hillary using money from CTR. This revulsion and hatred for Spez got turned up to 11 over the Thanksgiving weekend when Spez revealed that he had abused his power as CEO of Reddit to edit the comments of some The_Donald members.
High energy – very high praise. Opposite of “low energy” (as in Low Energy Jeb, Trump’s nickname for Jeb Bush during the primaries).
Red pilled. Happens to people when they find out too much about the lies told to them by “normies” (normal people) and the MSM. Origin: The Matrix – Neo takes the Red Pill and finds out that he has been serving as a human battery.
Aside from initiating new members, The_Donald posters primarily spend their time generating memes, criticizing opponents, and sharing and commenting on links. Near the end of the general election process, some of the more weaponized autists (see #11 above) donated substantial time to working on Wikileaks, specifically in finding anti-Hillary evidence within the leaked Podesta emails. I was also working on the Wikileaks emails, so I noticed them a lot. Their presence on the DNCLeaks and WikiLeaks subreddits was definitely noticed and not always appreciated.
In a prior posting I compared some of the language and beliefs of participants on The_Donald to other online communities, such as free and open source software communities, some white supremacist online communities, and the alt-right media.
The Guardian had a great article today that makes explicit many of the connections between the so-called “alt-right” and other predominantly male online movements/communities such as #Gamergate. I’d extend their analysis by adding two more communities: free, libre, and open source software (FLOSS) developers, and pro-Trump communities like the_donald on Reddit. Like Gamergate and alt-right, these are male online communities that have the same predictable speaking style and culture as referenced in the Guardian article:
Prominent supporters on Twitter, in subreddits and on forums like 8Chan, developed a range of pernicious rhetorical devices and defences to distance themselves from threats to women and minorities in the industry: the targets were lying or exaggerating, they were too precious; a language of dismissal and belittlement was formed against them. Safe spaces, snowflakes, unicorns, cry bullies…. These techniques, forged in Gamergate, have become the standard toolset of far-right voices online.